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Give the author's name and the year of publication. If the author's name is stated in the sentence, only the year is needed.
Davis' (2013) study shows that . . .
Give both names separated by 'and'. If the surnames are identical, add the initials.
(Jones and Smith 2001)
(Williams JS and Williams TR 2003)
Three or more authors
Give only the first author's name followed by et al. (not in italics) and the year.
(Rodgers et al. 2004)
If the first author's name and the years of publications are the same for several references, include enough additional co-author names to eliminate ambiguity. Include a comma after the last name.
(Rodgers, Cobb, et al. 2007)
Multiple works by the same author
For works published in the same year, add alphabetic designators to the year in both the in-text reference and the end reference.
(Stevens 2012a, 2012b)
For works published in different years, place years in chronological sequence separated by commas.
(Ryan 2005, 2009)
Authors with the same surname
When authors of 2 works published in the same year have the same surname, include their initials in the in-text citation and separate the names by a semicolon and space.
(Every R 1999; Every T 1999)
Organizations as authors
If an organizational author is referenced only once or twice in a document, the full organizational name is acceptable. A shortened form can be used in the in-text reference if the organization has a familiar abbreviation.
(Royal Organization of Science 2005)
End reference: Royal Organization of Science (UK). 2005.
If an organizational author is referenced several times in a document, a shortened form of the organizational name can be used. Use the initial letter of each part of the name or a recognizable abbreviation. Include the abbreviation as the initial element of the end reference within square brackets.
End reference: [NIH] National Institute of Health (US). 2003.
Works without authors
Begin the in-text reference with the first word or first few words of the title, followed by an ellipsis. Use only enough words to distinguish this title from other end references.
(Encyclopedia of . . . c2003)
End reference: Encyclopedia of bird species. c2003. Boston (MA): Boston.
Works with multiple dates
This can occur with journals whose volumes span calendar years, books with several volumes, and electronic documents.
Give the first and last years of publication, separated by a hyphen.
(Davis M and Robbins B 2001-2004)
For electronic publications include only one date in the in-text reference in the following order of preference:
(Harris et al. [cited 2008])
Harris CL, Sheets A, Bigot D. [cited 6 Jun 2008]. Imaging of the Montastrea faveolata [Internet]. Miami (FL): Saveseas. Available from http://www.saveseas.com/.
Works without dates
Place the words 'date unknown' within square brackets in the in-text reference. Include [date unknown] in the end reference also. Rarely, will no date be associated with a publication.
(Brigmeyer [date unknown])
Author(s). Date. Article title. Journal title. Volume(issue):location.
A DOI (Digital Object Identifier) may be included in the notes in addition to a URL, if available:
Savage E, Ramsay M, White J, Beard S, Lawson H, Hunjan R, Brown D. 2005. Mumps outbreaks across England and Wales in 2004: observational study. BMJ. [accessed 2005 May 31];330(7500):1119–1120. http://bmj.bmjjournals.com/cgi/reprint/330/7500/1119. doi:10.1136/bmj.330.7500.1119.
Journal with Two Authors
Mazan MR, Hoffman AM. 2001. Effects of aerosolized albuterol on physiologic responses to exercise in standardbreds. Am J Vet Res. 62(11):1812–1817.
Journal with Three-Ten Authors
Smart N, Fang ZY, Marwick TH. 2003. A practical guide to exercise training for heart failure patients. J Card Fail. 9(1):49–58.
Journal with More Than Ten Authors
Pizzi C, Caraglia M, Cianciulli M, Fabbrocini A, Libroia A, Matano E, Contegiacomo A, Del Prete S, Abbruzzese A, Martignetti A, et al. 2002. Low-dose recombinant IL-2 induces psychological changes: monitoring by Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI). Anticancer Res. 22(2A):727–732.
Title of Homepage. Date of publication. Edition. Place of publication: publisher; [date updated; date accessed]. Notes.
Website with No Date - Use Copyright Dates
APSnet: plant pathology online. c1994–2005. St Paul (MN): American Phytopathological Association; [accessed 2005 Jun 20]. http://www.apsnet.org/.
Weiss R. 2003 Apr 11. Study shows problems in cloning people: researchers find replicating primates will be harder than other mammals. Washington Post (Home Ed.). Sect. A:12 (col. 1).