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Antisemitism

This guide supports the Hillel presentation (04/08/24) on Antisemitism.

Definition of Zionism

Zionism can be defined in many ways, including as a nationalist, political, and/or ideological movement for the establishment and sustaining of statehood or a homeland for the Jewish people.   

Zionism frames many of the conflicts within the Israel / Palestine conflict.  Grasping the history, forms and debates within zionism can provide insight into discussions on this complex topic.

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Balfour Declaration (1917)

Zionism -- Overview

Zionism:  A Very Short Introduction (Oxford Academic):  Link

Zionism (Wikipedia):  Link

Books:  Link

Journal Articles:  Link

Zionism -- Topical Areas

History  --  Zionism emerges during the late 19th century and is tied to Haskalah, the Jewish equivalent of the Age of Enlightment.  Modern political zionism is credited to Herzl (1860-1904) with his publication of The Jewish State.  

  • Origins and Evolution of the Palestine Problem:  1917-1947 (United Nations, The Question of Palestine) -- Link
  • Haskalah:  The Jewish Enlightenment 1770's -1881 (Cowles Library Super Search) -- Link
  • Theodor Herzl and the Creation of the Zionist Movement, 1897 -1917 (Oxford Academic) -- Link
    • Der Judenstaat: The Jewish State (Project Gutenberg):  Link
  • "Establishment of the Zionist Movement" (Google Scholar) -- Link

 

Documents --  Examples of documents that trace the history of zionism include the Balfour Declaration (1917) which states the British governments support for a Jewish homeland in Palestine, and UN Resolution 3379 (1975, revoked 1991), which "Determines that Zionism is a form of racism and racial discrimination" as an international response to Jewish homeland in Palestine.

  • Balfour Declaration and the Mandate for Palestine -- Link
    • Balfour Declaration (Cowles Super Search) -- Link
  • UN Resolution 3379:  Determines that Zionism is a form of racism and racial discrimination"(Wikipedia) -- Link
    • Elimination of all forms of racial discrimination:  Zionism as racism --GA Resolution 3379 (United Nations) -- Link
    • Repeal of United Nations resolution 3379 -- Link

 

Forms of Zionism:  Zionism comes in ideological forms including: Political, practical, synthetic, labor, liberal, revisionist, religious, cultural, revolutionary and reform/progressive zionism.  Awareness of the nuances of zionism allows space for questions, debates and disagreements.

  • Culture War, World War, and The Many Types of Zionism (Perez, Anne) --  Link
  • Types of Zionism (Wikipedia) -- Link

 

Anti-Zionism:  Modern critiques of zionism center around questions of colonialism and racism.

  • Zionism Opposing Viewpoints (Gale in Context) -- Link
  • Anti-Zionism (Wikipedia) -- Link
  • New Antisemitism (Google Scholar) -- Link

AI (Gemini) Response to Query, "What are the controversies surrounding Zionism"

Zionism, the movement for a Jewish homeland, faces several controversies. Here are some key areas of debate:

  • Displacement of Palestinians: A major criticism is that the creation of Israel in 1948 led to the displacement of many Palestinians. Critics argue Zionism disregards the rights of the indigenous Palestinian population (https://www.facebook.com/aljazeera/videos/im-anti-zionist-and-anti-racist-and-i-wanted-it-to-be-clear-that-i-was-wrongly-d/2065408350509117/).

  • Right of Return: Israel's Law of Return grants automatic citizenship to Jews worldwide, but not to Palestinians who fled or were displaced in 1948 and their descendants. This is seen as discriminatory by critics (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Zionism).

  • Comparison to Colonialism: Some view Zionism as a form of settler colonialism, where European Jews came to dominate a land already inhabited by Palestinians (https://www.jpost.com/opinion/article-754310).

  • Israeli Policies: Many criticize the policies of the Israeli government, such as settlements in the occupied territories and restrictions on Palestinian movement. While these aren't aspects of Zionism itself, they are a source of tension and fuel arguments about Zionism's goals.

  • Definition of Antisemitism: There's debate about whether criticism of Zionism or Israeli policies is inherently antisemitic. Some argue it can be, while others see a distinction between criticizing a political ideology and prejudice against Jews (https://www.ajc.org/anti-zionism-as-a-form-of-antisemitism).

It's important to consider these controversies from multiple perspectives. There's no easy answer, and understanding the Israeli-Palestinian conflict requires acknowledging the complex historical context.

** This statement does not reflect the opinion of Cowles Library or Drake University **

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